[FoRK] Cool shoes
owen at permafrost.net
Wed May 5 20:34:31 PDT 2004
I want some - and then I want an API. It would be a cool platform to
May 6, 2004
The Bionic Running Shoe
*By MICHEL MARRIOTT*
SHOES have long been sensible. Now some are getting smart.
Smart enough, that is, to sense their environment electronically,
calculate how best to perform in it, and then instantly alter their
physical properties to adapt to that environment. In short, the
designers say, shoes that can do whatever is needed to deliver improved
athletic performance or just a better experience in the ancient poetry
of feet striking the earth.
"The whole concept of an intelligent shoe would be great," said
Christian DiBenedetto, a scientist here at the North American
headquarters of Adidas. "Something that would change to your different
needs during a marathon, or whatever you were doing, was always the
Adidas, the 83-year-old German sporting-goods maker, is about to turn
that fantasy into biomechanical reality in the form of a running shoe
for men and women. Sleek and lightweight despite its battery-powered
sensor, microprocessor and electric motor, the shoe, named 1, is
expected to be in stores by December and will cost $250.
Adidas executives say the shoe is no gadget-dependent gimmick. Instead,
its designers say it represents a leap forward in wearable technology.
Each second, a sensor in the heel can take up to 20,000 readings and the
embedded electronic brain can make 10,000 calculations, directing a tiny
electric motor to change the shoe. The goal is to make the shoe adjust
to changing conditions and the runner's particular style while in use.
"What we have, basically, is the first footwear product that can change
its characteristics in real time," said Mr. DiBenedetto, who led the
group that created the shoe, of its ability to adapt its cushioning as
the wearer runs.
The shoes will have push-button controls, light-emitting diodes to
display settings and an instruction manual on a CD-ROM that will advise
wearers on, among other things, how to change the battery after every
100 hours of use.
Of all items of clothing, said Rob Enderle, a principal analyst for the
Enderle Group in San Jose, Calif., the shoe is a logical one to be a
focus of wearable technology. Unlike articles of clothing that must be
washed or cleaned, shoes present a more stable place to add useful
electronics, he said.
High-performance shoes, particularly those intended for athletic use, he
said, have been augmented with an array of biomechanical enhancements,
most of them involving compressed gases, shock absorbers and springs.
But until now, he said, "I don't recall electronics being applied in
shoes other than for lights."
From the start of development in early 2001, the shoe was viewed as an
opportunity for Adidas to innovate, said Steve Vincent, who leads the
company's worldwide innovation team of about 50 people. Mr.
DiBenedetto's group is one of seven in Germany, Italy and the United
States that work in such secrecy that the units' names are not mentioned
to outsiders. To do otherwise, Mr. Vincent said from his corner office
overlooking the Willamette River, "would just give away the farm."
In the hypercompetitive sporting-goods industry, of which the $15
billion sneaker market is only a part, innovation is seen more and more
as a great differentiator. And while other companies, like Nike
in nearby Beaverton, Ore., have made a name for themselves with new
products, Mr. Vincent acknowledged that Adidas had not established a
firm reputation as an innovator in the American market.
"We look at innovation as the fuel for our company," he said. "We are
committed to deliver at least one new impactful technology or innovation
Among the first of those products was ClimaCool, a line of athletic
shoes and garments introduced in 2002 that use sophisticated materials
and strategically placed venting to relieve the wearer's heat and
perspiration. Others include a soccer ball that is bonded rather than
hand-sewn for better durability and truer flight, and a shoe engineered
to kick it faster and farther, as well as a swimsuit that uses
computer-assisted design and wind-tunnel testing to take advantage of
The latest creation, and the first to incorporate digital technology, is
the 1 running shoe. Outside the shoe's development group, which seldom
grew beyond seven designers, engineers, researchers and testers, few
people ever saw the shoes as they took shape.
"We used to keep them taped up," said Mark A. Oleson, a 29-year-old
electromechanical engineer, who with Mr. DiBenedetto, 38, formed the
core of the group.
And because Mr. Oleson has a size-9 foot, the size of most shoe
prototypes, he also became its chief tester, running the hallways of the
innovation team's bright, airy building and the lush green neighborhoods
that surround it.
But the challenge was melding a shoe with technology in a new way.
The first thing Mr. DiBenedetto and his group had to learn was whether
there was an ideal range of cushioning for runners. Cushioning is the
shoe's means of smoothly decelerating the runner's foot when the heel
strikes the ground. If the compression is too hard, the foot slows too
quickly and the shock is felt in the runner's knees, said Mr.
DiBenedetto, whose background is in mechanical and aeronautical
engineering. If the cushioning is too soft, the foot "bottoms out," he
said, striking the ground too hard, also stressing the knees.
Mr. DiBenedetto said he was surprised to learn that no one had ever
precisely measured cushioning compression while a shoe was in use. To do
that, he and Mr. Oleson inserted a sensor about the size of a sparrow's
eye into the top of the heel of a standard Adidas running shoe, and a
magnet smaller than a dime in the bottom of the heel, creating a
magnetic field that the sensor could measure. As the heel was
compressed, the sensor, known as a Hall sensor, measured the
corresponding changes in the magnetic field strength to a tenth of a
millimeter, 1,000 times a second.
To retrieve the data, the group also had to design and build a data
logger to gather and store the information and then transfer it to a
computer for analysis. After much trial and error, the group had a
sensor and data logger small and powerful enough to be snapped onto the
tongue of a sneaker.
During their first months of research, Mr. DiBenedetto and Mr. Oleson
said they taught themselves to make their own circuit boards and solder
components onto them. Mr. DiBenedetto, a former toy maker and designer
of air intake and exhaust systems on highly classified aircraft projects
for Lockheed, said the group began buying and dissecting motorized toys.
electronic toy creature known as Furby helped them better understand the
kinds of tiny electric motors and switches they might need for the shoe.
A skinned Furby sat on the edge of a table in Mr. DiBenedetto's work space.
Once the group had a reliable "sensor shoe," it set a number of them at
various cushioning levels and invited testers to select the pair of
shoes they found most comfortable. Then they ran in them.
"They'd come back and we'd download the data, and what we started to see
was that everyone was picking a shoe that got them to the same range of
compression," Mr. DiBenedetto recalled.
That led his group to write mathematical language that enabled the
shoe's embedded 20-megahertz computer continually to ensure that the
cushioning was ideal for the runner and the situation.
Next the group faced the issue of how to make a shoe adapt while it is
being worn. The solution was a hollow engineered plastic cushion with
metal support brackets. When the shoe's motor adjusted the tension on a
stainless steel cord that ran through the flexible heel, the heel
responded just the way Mr. DiBenedetto and Mr. Oleson wanted.
Mr. Enderle, the analyst, predicted that even at $250 a pair, shoes that
use digital technology effectively are likely to find a market.
Fortunately for Adidas, he said, "a lot of people who run - business
executives and the rest - do have the money and love having the latest
cutting-edge shoe that apply technology to make the running experience
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